The Future of Applied Science

Formatting requirements 

There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example, Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork, and Tables with Captions.
If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes. 


There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. . If you do wish to format the references yourself, they should be arranged according to the following examples:

Reference style 

Text: All citations in the text should refer to: 

  1. Single author:the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication; 
  2. Two authors:both authors' names and the year of publication; 
  3. Three or more authors:first author's name followed by 'et al.' and the year of publication. Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically. 

Examples: 'as demonstrated (Andrew, 2000a, 2000b, 1999; Andrew and Jones, 1999). Kramer et al. (2010) have recently shown ....' 

List: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication. 


Reference to a journal publication: 

Conklin, P. L. (2001). Recent advance in the role and biosynthesis of ascorbic acid in plants. Plant Cell Environ. 25: 425 – 438.

Manenoi, A. and Paull, R.E. (2007). Papaya fruit softening, endoxylanase gene expression, protein and activity. Physiol. Plant, 131:470-480.

Van der Geer, J.; Hanraads, J.A.J. and Lupton, R.A. (2010). The art of writing a scientific article. J. Sci. Commun. 163, 51–59. 

Reference to a book: 

Durbin, R.; Eddy, S.R.; Krogh, A. and Mitchison, G. (1999). Biological Sequence Analysis: Probabilistic Models of Proteins and Nucleic Acids. Cambridge University Press, pp: 356.

Reference to a chapter in a book: 

Mettam, G.R. and Adams, L.B. (2009). How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: Jones, B.S., Smith, R.Z. (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age. E-Publishing Inc., New York, pp. 281–304.

Reference to a thesis:

Strunk, J.L. (1991). The extraction of mercury from sediment and the geochemical partitioning of mercury in sediments from Lake Superior, M. S. thesis, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI.

Copyright and Permissions

By submitting a manuscript to the editor or publisher you are deemed to have granted permission to publish the manuscript.